No positive effects found for Jon Kabat-Zinn’s Mindfulness Based Stress-Reduction Program with middle and high School Students. Evidence of deterioration was found in some subgroup analyses.
We should be cautious about interpreting negative effects that are confined to subgroup analyses. They may well be due to chance. But we should be concerned about the lack of positive findings across measures in the primary analyses. MBSR (a mindfulness training product trademarked and controlled by Jon Kabat-Zinn) and other mindfulness programs have heavily promoted as having wondrous benefits and mandated in many school settings.
The study [with link to the PDF]
Johnson C, Burke C, Brinkman S, Wade T. Effectiveness of a school-based mindfulness program for transdiagnostic prevention in young adolescents. Behaviour Research and Therapy. 2016 Jun 30;81:1-1.
Anxiety, depression and eating disorders show peak emergence during adolescence and share common risk factors. School-based prevention programs provide a unique opportunity to access a broad spectrum of the population during a key developmental window, but to date, no program targets all three conditions concurrently. Mindfulness has shown promising early results across each of these psychopathologies in a small number of controlled trials in schools, and therefore this study investigated its use in a randomised controlled design targeting anxiety, depression and eating disorder risk factors together for the first time. Students (M age 13.63; SD = .43) from a broad band of socioeconomic demographics received the eight lesson, once weekly.b (“Dot be”) mindfulness in schools curriculum (N = 132) or normal lessons (N = 176). Anxiety, depression, weight/shape concerns and wellbeing were the primary outcome factors. Although acceptability measures were high, no significant improvements were found on any outcome at post-intervention or 3-month follow-up. Adjusted mean differences between groups at post-intervention were .03 (95% CI: -.06 to -.11) for depression, .01 (-.07 to -.09) for anxiety, .02 (-.05 to -.08) for weight/shape concerns, and .06 (-.08 to -.21) for wellbeing. Anxiety was higher in the mindfulness than the control group at follow-up for males, and those of both genders with low baseline levels of weight/shape concerns or depression. Factors that may be important to address for effective dissemination of mindfulness-based interventions in schools are discussed. Further research is required to identify active ingredients and optimal dose in mindfulness-based interventions in school settings.
The discussion noted:
The design of this study addresses several shortcomings identified in the literature (Britton et al., 2014; Burke, 2010; Felver et al., 2015; Meiklejohn et al., 2012; Tan, 2015; Waters et al., 2014). First, it was a multi-site, randomised controlled design with a moderately large sample size based on a priori power calculations. Second, it included follow-up (three months). Third, it sought to replicate an existing mindfulness-based intervention for youth. Fourth, socioeconomic status was not only reported but a broad range of socioeconomic bands included, although it was unfortunate that poor opt-in consent rates resulted in high data wastage in the lower range schools. Use of the same instructor for all classes in the intervention arm represents a strength (consistency) and a limitation (generalisability of findings).
Coverage in Scientific American
Mindfulness Training for Teens Fails Important Test
The fact that this carefully-controlled investigation showed no benefits of mindfulness for any measure, and furthermore indicated an adverse effect for some participants, indicates that mindfulness training is not a universal solution for addressing anxiety or depression in teens, nor does it qualify as a replacement for more traditional psychotherapy or psychopharmacology, at least not as implemented in this school-based paradigm.
Preorders are being accepted for e-books providing skeptical looks at mindfulness and positive psychology, and arming citizen scientists with critical thinking skills. Right now there is a special offer for free access to a Mindfulness Master Class. But hurry, it won’t last.
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